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Shrimp genetic improvement

Introduction

In any aquaculture production system it is necessary to maximize the profitability of the production units to make them more competitive, but at the same time they need to adapt quickly to the requirements of the production systems and market trends. In this sense, the program of genetic improvement of Maricultura del Pacifico plays an important role, working in the development of genetic lines that allow improving the profitability of production in various conditions, including the presence of diseases such as Hepatic Necrosis or White Spot Syndrome.

Goals

The program dates back to 1998 and since its creation has been aimed to offer to our clients the best organisms for their farms ponds. This genetic improvement program constitutes an important technological development, this result is the sum of all the efforts of the company, higher education and research institutions (UAM Unit Xochimilco, UNAM and CIAD Unit Mazatlan), as well as government entities that promote technological development in Mexico. It has allowed not only the opportunity to offer the best quality shrimp larvae, but also the training of high-level human resources.

Maricultura del pacifico’s genetic lines

Since the beginning of the program, the weight at 130 days after hatching has been considered as the main selection criteria. However, the progress of production systems and the sprouting of emerging diseases have led to important changes through the program aimed at the inclusion of selection criteria linked to survival in a commercial farm.

RESISTANCE LINE

This line was formed in 2013 from shrimp population in Ecuador, Panama and the United States and it has been selected based on controlled challenges for Hepatic Necrosis and White Spot Syndrome. Survival in commercial ponds in the presence and absence of these diseases and harvest weight.

GROWTH LINE

It was developed since 1998 prioritizing growth, but as a result of the 2013 health crisis in the sector, it was gradually withdrawn from the market and is currently being developed within the Maricultura del pacifico´s facilities, to contribute genetic heritage to favor growth in the resistance line.

Our genetic core

The resistance and growth lines are maintained in continuous selection programs and their populations are located in the company’s Genetic Core facilities, located in Los Pozos Ejido, on Los Pozos-Caimanero Km. 4.5 road, Municipality of El Rosario , Sinaloa, Mexico. This core operates under strict sanitary and quality standards in its processes, being a complete cycle unit independent of the facilities of the rest of the company.

TAKE A LOOK TO OUR FACILITIES

In the Genetic Core, technology has been developed to handle small-scale processes maximizing the usefulness of its facilities, for example, it has the capacity to handle up to 100 individual spawns and up to 600 larval offspring simultaneously, as well as its own microalgae production laboratory. The personnel assigned to the Genetic core have extensive experience in the management of maturation, larval and commercial fattening rooms, in addition to other skills such as the placement of elastomers for family identification and the use of artificial insemination. These personnel are highly trained, due to the strict management required for the maintenance of strict sanitary control and water quality, they allow healthy populations to be maintained both in high densities in concrete ponds with hyper-aeration in greenhouses, as well as in covered open ponds with anti-aphids mesh.

Súper camarón genéricamente mejorado de Maricultura del Pacífico

Depending on the Genetic Core, in 2013 the Disease Challenge Unit (UDE) was established, located more than 30 kilometers from any aquaculture production unit. The UDE operates with a capacity of 8 tubs with a capacity of one ton of water in a recirculation system, with a controlled environment and strict biosecurity measures, in which various evaluations for indicators of resistance to emerging diseases have been carried out successfully.

Program structure

1

GENETIC CORE

In this population, family and intra-family selection processes are carried out based on index that use the information obtained from evaluations for indicators of disease resistance, crop weight and survival in commercial ponds. Efficient genealogical controls are maintained to maximize the response of the program with minimal increases in consanguinity.

2

COMMERCIAL BREEDERS

From the 10 best families of the evaluation of each cycle are made up of 6 to 8 new families, which allow to obtain consanguinities less than 5% in shrimp that will be used in commercial ponds and are evaluated in the field. Of these families the 2 best are chosen where high intensities of mass selection are made to form the group of breeders for the commercial larva.

3

OBTAINING COMMERCIAL LARVES

Product of two years of meticulous selection processes. In each cycle, information is obtained from commercial production units that allow to guide the necessary adjustments of the genetic improvement program.